Survivalist by Circumstance - Volume Five
The reasons why survivors might suffer from a collapse in cognitive functioning upon rescue are not understood and there is little research into this phenomenon. Generally, the physical and mental demands placed on individuals during rescue are low. If victims display cognitive impairments in this period these can be monitored by rescuers and medical staff and interventions administered if required.
Therefore, extra care should be taken if, for example, a victim is being placed in a potentially dangerous situation such as being transported via helicopter to hospital. What can you do? Acceptance of a potential risk and being prepared for a disaster by having a well-stocked survival kit can stop environmental pressures such as cold or lack of food from impacting on cognition and so can improve your chances of survival. This is not second nature to us, either because of denial or not fully understanding the risks.
The Californian North Ridge earthquake in revealed many people had put themselves at increased risk by not having an earthquake survival kit. If cognitive and physiological changes under threat lead to a reduction in cognitive functions such as working memory, then utilisation of areas of the brain that are more likely to be unaffected by exposure to stressful events would be useful.
For example, training that reduces the burden on working memory by laying down procedural memories on how to use safety equipment could help lead to purposeful action during an emergency. This highlights the need for safety training to incorporate a practical element, not just to rely on reading a book or watching a video.
Sarita J. Nikola J. Ashcroft, F. Life at the extremes: The science of survival. Baker, G. Eds Man and society: In disaster. New York: Basic Books. Boer, L. Behaviour by motorists on evacuation of a tunnel.
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L-tyrosine ameliorates some effects of lower body negative pressure stress. Physiological Behaviour, 57, — Evans, P. Stress, arousal, cortisol and secretory immunologlobulin A in students undergoing assessment. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 32, — Gold, A. The effect of IQ level on the degree of cognitive deterioration experienced during acute hypoglycemia in normal humans.
Intelligence, 20, — Greene, M. The March eruptions of Mount St Helens.
Survival – mind and brain
Disasters, 5, 49— Karsenty, E. Medical aspects of the Iraqi missile attacks on Israel. Israel Journal of Medical Science, 27, — Leach, J. Aviation, Space and Environmental Medicine, 75, — Cognitive paralysis in an emergency. Aviation, Space and Environmental Medicine, 76, — Lorist, M. Impaired cognitive control and reduced cingulate activity during mental fatigue. Cognitive Brain Research, 24 2 , — Lupien, S.
Survivalist by Circumstance – Volume Five – Lousy Book Covers
Working memory is more sensitive than declarative memory to the acute effects of corticosteroids. Behavioural Neuroscience, , — Hoffman, R. The affect of acute stress on subsequent neuropsychological test performance. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 19 4 , — Miller, D. Neuroendocrine aspects of response to stress. Metabolism, 51, 5— Morgan, C. III, Wang, S. Plasma neuropeptide-Y concentrations in humans exposed to survival training.
Biological Psychiatry, 47, — Relationships amongst plasma dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and cortisol levels, symptoms of dissociations, and objective performance in humans exposed to acute stress. Archives of General Psychiatry, 61, — Radley, J. Repeated stress and structural plasticity in the brain. Ageing Research Review, 4, — Robinson, S. The effects of exposure to an acute naturalistic stressor on workingmemory, state anxiety and salivary cortisol concentration. International Journal on the Biology of Stress, 11, — Schuh, K.
Caffeine reinforcement. Psychopharmacology, 30, — Selye, H. Stress without distress. New York: New American Library.
The practitioner's therapeutic stance
Simon, A. Psychopharmacological possibilities in the acute disaster setting. Psychiatric Clinics of North America. Smith, D. Effects of strenuous live-fire fighting drills on hematological, blood chemistry and psychological measures.
The Fashion Survivalist
Journal of Thermal Biology, 26, — Thomas, J. Tyrosine improves working memory in a multitasking environment. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behaviour, 64 3 , — Valent, P. The Ash Wednesday bushfires in Australia. Medical Journal of Australia, 14, — Wolf, O.
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Moderate psychosocial stress appears not to impair recall of words learned 4 weeks prior to stress exposure. Stress, 5 1 , 59— Wright, K. P, Hull, J. Relationship between alertness, performance and body temperature. Xu, J.
Brain activity in smokers performing a working memory task. I'm not sure if it is because many of us are broke so we're drawn to the idea of obtaining things we need without spending money or perhaps it is the thought that we're getting away with something because we're avoiding sales tax and such.